"All these must be built with due reference to durability, convenience, and beauty".
Vituvius. "Ten Books on Architecture". Book I. Chapter IV
Architecture is Space organizing, which requires Time. But all this is so Relatively...
Light course on interior design from Alexander Rudakov
1. Interior Design
- comprehensive harmonious arrangement of interior space for human
life - work, play, study, parenting, sports, health care and other spheres of human activity. A person's life from the point of view of architecture and interior design is a function, a special "technological" process. The interior can be divided into residential
Urban planning and architecture called to equip a person's life in the cities, towns, in residential, industrial and recreational areas, buildings and complexes. Landscaping includes park culture and accomplishment of land.
Interior design is part of the architecture, which is responsible for the arrangement of the premises and the inner space of buildings.
Interior design by developing formulas of Vitruvius, must reliably and comprehensively provide one or more functions of human or a group of people life, mostly inside buildings, and meet the high aesthetic and cultural requirements. Any idea, no matter how creative it is, should not be implemented at the expense of reliability and functionality.
1-1. Function in the interior design
. Any complex, a group or a separate room has its destination in terms of benefit to man. Requirements for restaurant or office differ from each other and not similar to the requirements to the store or hotel. Public buildings are almost always combine several functions, which in this case are divided into major and minor.
Following the functional purpose, it is necessary to consider all the required conditions, primarily regulatory, for premises or complex for which interior design is developed.
Zoning. Premises and their groups tend to be placed according to certain rules. Living and working rooms require natural light, so are located at the glazed exterior walls, but toilets, bathrooms, pantry, walk-in closets and utility rooms can be arranged in the back of the house or apartment and do not have windows. Wardrobe better positioned near the front door but the shower and bathroom should not be far from sleeping room, unlike the hallway. Premises requiring water supply, canalization or ventilation should be located as close as possible to these communications. Location of premises in relation to the sides of the world should not be accidental. Bedrooms, for example, not recommended to orient to the west and southwest.
Within each of room also there are its own zones. For example, in the bedroom area except beds can be area for read and relax with table and chairs, and vanity area. Children room can be conditionally divided into sleeping, playing and study area, living room - into the center of the communication and watching TV, and a fireplace in the corner. Zoning within the premises can provide arrangement of furniture, equipment, interior, decor and light.
Vertical zoning may lie in the fact that the bedrooms are located on the first floor, and the general and guest rooms - kitchen, dining room, living room - on the ground. In this case, laundry room, boiler room, wine cellar can be in the basement.
Scheme of horizontal and vertical zoning of the terminal "B" Boryspil Airport. Different areas are marked with different colors:
Zoning offices involves location of premises for visitors such as reception, human resources, accounting, in close or enough proximity to the entrance, the main staircase, elevator. Offices of superiors is considered correct positioning in the distance, near them can be deliberative rooms and lounges.
Zoning restaurants must be strictly taken into account technological requirements of production, and for the visitors is that the dining room is convenient for customers and for their service to walk-in closet was at the entrance, and in the depths of toilets. Staff room, kitchen, storage and utility rooms form a separate group.
The houses and apartments are separated the common and private space. For the post-Soviet countries, the number of living rooms is calculated as the sum of the residents and married couples plus one room. Today, if possible, there involve separate facilities for cabinet, library, home cinema, billiard room, dressing room, maid's room, laundry room and other.
Redevelopment is correction volume-spatial solution to improve their premises consumer qualities or to change their functionality. Zoning is an important determinant of good solutions. Thus it is necessary to take into account the presence and condition of existing structures, communication, focus on the ability to place and connect new equipment, machinery and furniture. Redevelopment of existing buildings should not concern their bearing structures, otherwise there are requires report and draft amendments made by licensed organization. An example of redevelopment can be found on our website.
Ergonomics considers biometric parameters of the human body and the usual human activities when designing of premises, in developing and arrangement of furniture, equipment and their parts. For example, the switches are located at a height of about 850 mm above the floor for ease of switching simple slap palm. Sitting at a table with his back to the wall should be able to move the chair and get up from the table, and for this purpose at the back of the chair should be sufficient free space. Door handle should be positioned comfortably in the palm and let no effort to open or close the door. Television sets intended for the man lying on the couch or sitting are located at different heights. Dynamic anthropometry differs from static that determines parameters of a body in motion.
The proportions of premises is recommended not to do in a ratio greater than 1: 2. The height of the small and narrow premises, such as a single toilet should not take large. It can achieve by suspended ceiling. The height of modern living quarters must not be less than 2.7 m, the optimum height of 3 m.
At competent arrangement of furniture and equipment, they are convenient, space and penetrations allow you to navigate easily.
1-2. Structural reliability and engineering support
. Patrick the piglet (see. Fig. by B. Chizhikov) showed "fabulous" sample attitude to their own home. Following it, the development of interior design project it is useful to make sure that floors, new partitions and old walls would be reliable, to kitchen and bath have been provided with water, sanitation, ventilation, and a living room and bedroom have been air-conditioned. Waterproofing of the floor and anti-Strait system can protect against "tarnished reputation" in opinion the neighbors below.
Windows should be comfortable and safe for ventilation to protect from winter frosts and doors - from drafts and thieves. Sufficient insolation (sunshine), cabling, arrangement of sockets, switches and control panels the system "smart house", protection against noise, the device of warm floors and lighting - all is necessary think over in advance and to take into account in the project design of the interior. Location windows should provide convenient ventilation, avoiding that when the windows are on opposite walls.
The interior is used natural materials - stone, wood, or artificial - plastic and composite materials. This is roller and foil materials, tile, paint and panel, and they are used for decoration of walls, ceilings, floors. The properties of these materials must be considered when creating a professional interior design. These properties include thermal conductivity and noise insulation, reflective characteristics, strength and fragility, aesthetic properties.
Walls, Partitions (not bearing wall) - a solid, mostly vertical structure, separated adjacent rooms or areas from each other. The material of the walls and partitions are wooden logs or timbers, wooden shield constructions with filling, natural stone, solid and hollow blocks, concrete and reinforced concrete, ceramic hollow blocks, glass and glass units, metal panels. Majority of modern multi-layer constructions walls is often framed. Deaf, glazed, sliding partitions organize the space in different ways, and are used for a variety of tasks, from the complete separation of the premises up to nearly symbolic zoning.
Сeiling is a construction that limits premises above. Loft-style involves using an open ceiling structure or roof. In other cases accepted to use a false ceiling which can be made of sheets of drywall panels or seamless plastic It can be filled with the carcass panels, suspended, wood, glass or mirror...
Floors is exploited surface arranged on overlapping or on a constructive basis of the ground floor or basement. The front surface of the floor it is a natural stone, wood, laminate, ceramic and stoneware pressed tiles, linoleum, pile coating.
The floors in the "wet" premises performed with waterproofing, and in areas where you need to perform under the flooring laying cable communications may be performed frame floors with removable plates. Plot the floor, raised above the rest of it, called the podium.
Window is the feature of wall or roof for lighting and ventilation of the room. Glazing of modern windows are made of double-glazed windows with varying amounts of glass. The frame can be made of wood (usually of eurobar), plastic, metal and plastic and aluminum. Opening the windows is turning (including the central axes of the window), folding, hanging and sliding. The fixed window is called deaf.
Door is opening in a wall or partition the room, equipped with a shield, closing the doorway at a time when not in use. Material shield door is wood, glass, metal, plastic, glass unit. By opening doors divided into swinging, sliding, lifting, folding, rotating, and on the right, the left and double-wing. Doors can be glazed and deaf, with a doorstep or not. Also, the doors are divided to external and internal, there is a special door - fireproof, soundproof, bulletproof and the doors of vaults. Openings and passages contemplated in the development plan should not only be suitable for humans, but also allows you to move furniture or equipment.
Doors, windows and other openings, arranged in the bearing walls are covered with jumpers, which perceived pressure upstream structures.
For easy control of the electric network a sources of consumption are divided into groups, each of which has its own circuit breaker.
Implementation of the system of "smart house" will implement execution of different scenarios at a convenient time, even without the presence of man. It can be programmed and administered promptly, including remotely control settings heating, lighting, air conditioning, security, access, video monitoring, and other parameters.
Industrial premises may require additional engineering support related to the features of the work process.
1-3. Aesthetic filling the interior
is a set of factors determining the stylistic, volume-spatial, plastic and coloristic component of interior design.
Beauty. Often you can hear in everyday life vague definition of "beautiful interior". And what is beauty? There are many definitions of beauty, and the second most popular after the "beauty - a terrible force" can be considered that, in accordance with which the "beauty - is appropriate." The broad definition can be obtained in the book "Analysis of Beauty" by W. Hogarth. When designing the interior, we take care that the result is consistent with our ideas about the aesthetic, and often moral norms.
Tools for creating harmonious interior are diverse - is faithful to the chosen style and the idea, good composition solution taking into account the rhythm, proportion, texture of materials, the use of effective methods of lighting and thoughtful color scheme.
Style - the main component of the interior, defining its main aesthetic qualities. Selected style sets the color palette, composition and volume-spatial decision affects the selection of materials. Style connects the interior with a specific historical period, reflecting the cultural and aesthetic priorities of the customer. The specifics of relations to the interior style on post-Soviet territory - is often the reference point rather a demonstration of wealth than on comfort and sense of taste.
Popular styles are used today in the development of interior design, it is classical and neoclassical styles, baroque and rococo, eclecticism, English (often without separation into Gregorian, Victorian, Tudor and others), French (mostly Provencal), Empire, Mediterranean, Scandinavian, colonial, Alpine chalet style, Art Nouveau, country, exotic oriental styles. Among contemporary styles prevalent International Style, minimalism, hi-tech, technostyle, fusion, loft and steampunk. Below are interiors in the English, Provence, loft and steampunk styles.
Composition. Rules of composition allow you to organize volume-spatial and frontal solutions of interior and any part by harmonious and interconnected location of elements and techniques underlying the design ideas.
Composition may be balanced or unbalanced, symmetric and asymmetric, and the result is achieved due to static or dynamic balance, rhythmic or metric order of the elements, their size and the co-scale, accounting and compliance proportions and relations, such as the golden section, the rule of three units and others. Every composition has its geometrical, optical, composite centers.
Order - mutual arrangement of objects and details, subordinate to certain laws. The design solution involves the orderly placement of interior elements. The special conceptual approach may imply chaotic or non-fixed position of the interior components.
Conceptual idea of interior - focusing on achieving certain aesthetic, experimental or ideological goals and associations.
The idea may be to bring all of the project area into open-space or to create by design techniques a semblance of a pirate or a space ship in the interior, to simulate the inside of the outer space, to a new zoned premises or expand their engineering content.
Form is space "shell" of objects - from a grain of sand to the world or even the universe.
Texture is visible surface structure. Facture is characterized by an uneven surface characteristics of each material. Board covered with clear lacquer will have lacquer facture through which we can see the texture of wood. Relief in the interior - a complicated profile of decorative design elements and a combination which they form.
To harmonize the elements of interior design are used different means. Some of them are described below.
Size and Scale are absolute and relative geometric characteristic of shape. Elements that are close in size, known as co-scale. Forms which dimensions significantly larger than the human are considered large scale, in contrast to small-scale which is much smaller than a human growth.
Statics and Dynamics. Emotional evaluation of "stability" of the shape and composition as a whole. The square is static, but being put down angle, becomes dynamic.
Symmetry and Asymmetry. These techniques make it possible to deploy elements of a composition, displaying of their inverted copy with respect to one or more axes, or to arrange these forms without submitting such an order.
Nuance and Contrast. These tools may be related to the color, facture, texture combinations to harmonize the different shapes and sizes. Nuance is a slight difference of elements on some grounds, but the contrast is sharp difference between them.
Meter and Rhythm. Metric order has uniformly
the same elements, and the rhythm - or their bases with a specific regularity, or evenly spaced elements differing from neighboring ones. The rhythm and meter can be combined compositionally.
Ratio and Proportion determine the ratio of composite elements with each other and with the form. Ratio compares element similar characteristics, such as length, width and height. Proportion - a multiple of the ratio. The well-known rule of three parts is a simple ratio as the Golden Section (see below) is proportional. AB / AM = AM / MB = 62% / 38% = 1,618.
Coloristics is the science about color and its nature, the characteristics of color combination and blending of colors and rules of color harmony.
Color is the visual characteristics of the light waves as direct sunlight or artificial, and missed or reflected by various objects, and depending on the surface properties of these objects. Any surface absorbs the light of specific frequency, and reflects the light of other frequencies. This spectrum is different for different items. If the surface absorbs all the waves of the visual range, it seems black, and if the surface reflects lightwaves falling on her, we see white.
Whole visible spectrum decomposed into its constituent colors, we see in the rainbow which is obtained from the refraction of sunlight in the natural atmospheric prism with high humidity. These colors in the natural order Newton (the same :)used to create the first Color Wheel. Goethe (also same :) mixing extreme colors of the rainbow - red and purple - got the eighth, magenta which he added to his own Color Wheel.
To work with color is convenient Itten's Color Wheel which identified additional (orange, green and violet) colors on the basis of the three primary colors (red, yellow and blue).
Mixing these colors allows to create more delicate shades. There are other classification system of colors as on other basic colors (for example - red, green, blue) as on the other quantity of it (red, yellow, green, blue).
Color harmony in the interior design can be achieved by using known color matching schemes. Below are shown different palettes based on one primary color, purple.
Impact on human by color may be physiological, emotional, and optical. It is generally accepted that the physiological effects of color is the influence on the nervous system, respiratory rate and muscle tone. It is believed that red - the exciting, orange and yellow - tonic, green (just do not tell "color of hope" :) - soothing, as well as light blue, and blue and purple - slowing activity, depressing. The optical effects of color is reduced to color illusions which help understand our perception and take it into account in practice. At the following example the small squares in the center of large are of the same color.
The psychological impact of color is related to optical, but a feature is the effects on mood and behavior.
Black, white and gray are not spectral, but they have equal rights with the other colors in the interior. Their combination with each other and with other colors can be the basis of solid and interesting color solutions of interior design.
Correcting perception of premises by means of color. General rules recommend the use of warm and rich tone for the "approximation" wall or ceiling, and for the "distancing" - cold and dilute whitewash. For high buildings perform better dark floors.
Light is an important tool in the hands of the interior designer. Natural and Artificial lighting is usually complement each other, but some rooms only artificial light is available - for example, in the basement. Artificial lighting can be directed, scattered and reflected. Natural lighting can also arrange for these principles by using certain techniques. Lighting is divided into general, local, combined and alarm. It can be classified by color temperature as a cold, warm and neutral, as well as colored. Such type light source as an open fire, we will not consider - remain incandescent, fluorescent, halogen and LED. The last mentioned lamps are most effective in terms of energy.
Lighting devices are diverse. This can be a chandelier (suspension), sconces, floor lamp, spot, band, or a built-in surface mounted luminaire.
Calculation of lighting is determined by the regulations. Therefore, in order not to mess with almost forgotten since school times units, for competent lighting solutions makes sense to refer to specialists. But there is, of course, a simplified assessment of illumination of premises. Let us assume height of the room is not more than 3 m under incandescent lighting. 10 W / m2 is the minimum possible lighting for rooms with a subdued light, for example, in the bedroom. 15 W / m2 is the average lighting for most areas. 20 W / m2 - the highest illumination for critical premises - hall, living room. For higher rooms should be used a step-up factor of 1.2 - 1.5 and more. For halogen lamps can be accepted ratio of 0.75, and for fluorescent and energy-saving lamps - the coefficient of 0.2.
Room decorating is filling the interior design of furniture, accessories, art, decoration of windows and doorways. It can be separately identified floristics as art decoration by living or artificial flowers and plants, and ikebana. If the plants are located in the interior in places with insufficient lighting, it may provides phyto-lamps.
Textile design helps arrange windows, doorways and portals, agree in the same style upholstery, wallpaper, canopy beds. Modern shading devices are diverse - it is traditional, Roman, Japanese blinds and a variety Rollets system.
2. Interior design project
is created by certain rules, the observance of which allows us to take all the necessary decisions and make sure they are correct, calculate the required volume of materials, timing and sequence of work, pre-order complex products, furniture and equipment.
Stages of the design project: A - conclusion of the contract and advance payments; B - measuring and photographing; C - sketching, sometimes performed 2-3 variants; D - approval of selected variant, it is possible the second part of the payment; E - Implementation of working drawings and renderings; F - surrender of the finished design project and final payment for the work; G - supervision under a separate contract or as part of the basic contract. At the pre-stage negotiated the style of the future interior and requirements specification can be made and approved before sign the agreement and to enter into an integral part of it.
Sometimes separate Draft project as a separate step, according to the results of which must be ordered Detailed design of interior design.
Сontent of the project may be different, but usually includes measurement drawings,, redevelopment plans, plans of arrangement of furniture and equipment, ceiling plans, floor plans, plans of arrangement of sockets and switches, sweep the walls, parts and components, sheet finishing, visualization of the main premises.
Measurements should be done carefully and accuratelywithout losing of the vertical size of premises, their parts and binding, and communications networks. The usual band roulette supplemented laser, more accurate. Photofixation need to visually capture the current state of the object and its parts.
Sketching - creating conceptual proposals of interior design. Normally it includes a plan of redevelopment and some art graphics of the main premises. Working drawings must be made so as to accurately and completely reflect all components of the interior design. The selected scale should allow a clear picture depicted elements of the project. Performing of architectural drawings is regulated by normative documents.
Drawing of measurements shows the existing situation of the object in exact size, including vertical marks.
If it necessary, being developed Plan of dismantling of existing partitions and other non-supported (!) structures.
Redevelopment plan shows the location of all elements of the plan of their premises with precise bindings, and also an explication of the premises.
On the Redevelopment plan with placing of furniture and equipment sometimes indicate their dimensions.
Ceiling Plan with the arrangement light fixtures indicates the total ceiling plan with binding of all its elements and their marks, showing the exact location of all downlights and their explication.
Floor plan includes a drawing of the floor elements and their mark with a special indication waterproofing of floors, underfloor heating, and their explication.
Plan arrangement of sockets and switches displays bind these elements, including the adjustment, and their specification. Outlets and switches can be single, double, grouped. Outlets include AC, telephone, television, internet network sockets.
Sweeps of walls are fixed in the front a design decisions, including compositional layout elements of finishing of walls, the furniture, the location of sockets, switches, backlights and sconces, TVs, mirrors, paintings and other items.
Units, Details, Cross-sections clarify the how to construct and demonstrate on a larger scale the defining elements of the interior.
In most cases is performed Sheet of finishing of premises, which displays all the elements of decoration, with their volumes.
Composition of interior design projects, in accordance with the Terms of Reference may include Scheme of filling doorways. Sometimes are performed Detailed drawings of furniture, light fixtures and individual products.
Using specialized computer programs create a Visualization - perspective views of three-dimensional virtual models of designed objects, made in color and with photographic quality.
Supervision is an important component of the work on the interior design, which consists in monitoring of the developer on the precise embodiment of the design solutions and operational adjustment of it if necessary. The structure of the author's supervision over the work to translate the interior design project includes the selection of finishing materials, furniture, equipment, lighting elements and accessories.
According to the latest innovations in the Ukrainian legislation, "execution of works by owners for the conversion and redevelopment of a residential building and residential premises of the private housing stock, which do not involve intervention in the load-bearing structures and / or engineering systems for general use, does not require a documents entitling them execution. After the completion of these works putting into operation is not required."
Interior design project does not contain a description of the sequence of works, but it is necessary to know and take into account in the design, as well as technology to create all the elements of interior design and engineering solutions. The general principle of works, unless there is a compelling reason to do otherwise - to implement them top to bottom, from the top floor to the basement and from ceiling to floor.
Work on the project of interior design requires the author's ability to effectively conduct negotiations and meetings with customers, contractors, managers of salons, as well as the ability to present and defend your ideas.
Work on the project of interior design requires the author's ability to effectively conduct negotiations and meetings with customers, contractors, managers of salons, as well as the ability to present and defend your ideas.
In order to visualize the process of the completion of the interior design and commissioning of the object, you can watch the film of Jacques Tati "Play Time
" starting from 1 hour 1 minutes. Enjoy good viewing!
A. Rudakov ©